Armed Hostilities

“Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki” by Zuberi

Matin Zuberi’s Journal Article


This journal discusses one of the main shifts in policy and outlines the history of one of the most devastating events in the history of war in the world.

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The article discusses atomic bombs dropped on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. An overview is provided regarding decisions that led to the use of atomic bombs as weapons for coercing Japan to surrender and bring the Second World War to an end. The article describes the distinctive bombing missions and the events that took place on the days of the bombings. Various alternatives that could have been used to bring about the surrender of Japan have also been outlined. Each alternative has been discussed in depth, providing reasons as to why they were not regarded as suitable options that would secure the surrender of Japan. The article analyzes various reasons why the atomic bomb was regarded as the most effective mechanism over all other alternatives available.

Occurrences of radical shifts in policies are outlined in the article in detail. It reveals decisions developed by the Military Policy Committee. The committee had recommended the use of the atomic bomb on Japan and not any other country. Various elements involved in selecting appropriate targets and the contribution of relevant generals are also outlined in the article. According to the article, not all generals were in support of the idea of using atomic bombs to secure the surrender of Japan. According to the author of the article, some generals believed that the use of the bomb would cause serious political consequences. The Frank Committee Report, which explained factors that may arise in the military field if a nuclear weapon is used, is also outlined in the article.

The article further outlines the cluster of catastrophes that were experienced in the events of August 6 and August 9. The effects of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been briefly outlined to show the extent of damage and trauma caused on lives as well as property in both cities. Imperial decisions made by the Japanese Supreme War Council, regarding whether or not they should surrender or still continue to take part in the war, is outlined in the article. Conflicting points of view of different members of the council are outlined in the article, showing what each member felt was the right decision to be made.

Research Methods Employed

Researchers publish their original research in journals to enable them illustrate their findings transparently. Research followed a linear path, beginning with questions formed through observation, formation of hypothesis and finally producing results and conclusion. Research is a dynamic and robust practice which makes use of different methods in investigating, describing, as well as comparing events. These research methods may either overlap or be used together to describe events. This study employed aspects of both descriptive and experimental research. Researchers have combined both research methods in this study due to the nature of questions that had to be addressed.

Descriptive research methods have been used to gather information regarding events. In these methods, researchers may find themselves measuring and observing events. A descriptive study of the bombings entailed observation of events during the Second World War.

This was in order to determine whether or not Japan would have been willing to surrender or the atomic bomb had to be used. An experimental research, on the other hand, has been used to investigate the relationship between different variables. In the case of alternatives the United States could have employed instead of using the atomic bomb, an experimental research was used to identify the disadvantages and advantages of each alternative.

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These research methods were used together to generate a clear understanding of the events of the bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Descriptive and experimental research methods help in the simplification of future events so as to understand them with ease. Results obtained from the use of the research methods can confirm whether or not the use of atomic bombs was justified, or were used for the self interest of the United States.

Bruce Loebs’ Journal Article


This article discusses whether or not the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was necessary to secure the surrender of Japan and bring an end to the Second World War.


The article addresses a fundamental issue regarding whether or not the atomic bombing of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were justified. It analyzes key variables that President Truman considered before deciding to use atomic bombs on Japan. The article concludes that use of nuclear weapon was a rational and wise decision made by the President. This article analyzes the decision made by President Truman. In this analysis, it employs the natural law traditions, the prism of just war theory, and the right of the state to independence.

The article further analyses impacts of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in high level diplomatic exchanges. The author explains that the decision to use the atomic bomb brought about enormous consequences and controversies that continue to exist years after the event occurred. A number of research questions are outlined in the journal, which aims at developing answers as to why the atomic bomb was used instead of other alternatives.

President Franklin Roosevelt’s contribution to the events has also been outlined in the article. Decisions made by the president regarding the use of nuclear weapons on Germany are outlined. A study of the last days of the Second World War is outlined in the article, which clearly shows the enormous role played by the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. An outline of the irrelevance of dropping a second bomb on Nagasaki is also provided in the journal.

Research Method Used in the Article

The article’s researchers made use of a qualitative approach to analyze and interpret information related to atomic bombings of Hiroshima. The inquiry compares and contrasts evidence, historical records and views of other scholars regarding the decision to use an atomic bomb on Japan. Relevant criteria are then applied to the facts to establish an appropriate conclusion. In this article, researchers have displayed their interpretation of information regarding atomic bombing using a qualitative approach to explain their findings.

This is believed to be the most subjective area of the article due to its interpretation of ideas. Researchers have combined their background knowledge, historical data, and views of other scholars to explain the events and use them as evidence in analysis. In this article, qualitative research has been used to ensure a proper interpretation and objectivity of information.

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Works Cited

Loebs, Bruce. Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Commonweal 122: 14 (1995), 11-19. Print.

Zuberi, Matin. Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Strategic Analysis 25: 5 (2001), 623-662. Print.

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